Issues and Threats

Major threats that limit the mangrove community in the Philippines are human intervention, particularly converting the areas to fish ponds, and natural phenomena, which includes typhoons and sea level rise.
mangroves damaged by Yolanda_Bantayan Island, Cebu
Mangroves damaged by Super Typhoon Yolanda in Bantayan Island, Cebu
Elevation change in mangroves in Las Pinas, Manila Bay.
Garbage, a serious concern, in the survival of mangroves of Las Pinas, Manila Bay
To address the dwindling number of these trees, restoration programs have been implemented using monospecific plantation (mostly Rhizophora mucronata) and in sub-optimal conditions, which limit growth and survival.
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