Mangroves are dicotyledonous terrestrial trees that inhabit the marine environment. These trees are mainly confined to the tropics, occupying intertidal muddy shores. Due to their habitat, they are exposed to challenges such as changing tides, fluctuating salinity, a low oxygen concentration in the water, and the high temperature of the tropics.
Mangrove species come from different families and the evolution of their habit can be highly attributed to convergence, and not from common descent. Their distribution is mainly limited by temperature, and can be correlated to sea temperature. They can survive in air temperatures as low as five degrees Celsius, but cannot tolerate frost.

mangrove-seagrass-coral interconnectivity
Ecosystem interconnectivity across mangrove forest-seagrass bed-coral reef (Busuanga, Palawan)
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